BLAME AND BANISHMENT

BLAME AND BANISHMENT free pdf ebook was written by on July 08, 2010 consist of 68 page(s). The pdf file is provided by www.unicef.org and available on pdfpedia since April 09, 2012.

blame and banishment t he underground hiv epidemic a ecting children in eastern..is known to have survived. his work is a photographic testament..make a difference in children’s lives. fragments of some of...

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BLAME AND BANISHMENT pdf




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BLAME AND BANISHMENT - page 1
BLAME AND BANISHMENT The underground HIV epidemic a ecting children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
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BLAME AND BANISHMENT - page 2
On 21 December 2006, Michal Novotny took this photo of Slavik, 12, as he looked out of the sewer where he lived on the outskirts of Odessa, Ukraine. According to the Ukrainian non-governmental organization The Way Home, supported by UNICEF and other partners, there were more than 3,000 homeless children living on the streets of Odessa at that time. Many of them used drugs, had sexually transmitted infections, and were HIV-positive. This report highlights five photographs by Michal Novotny, who spent time with street children when he worked with The Way Home. The photos can be seen on his web site (www.michalnovotny.com). They capture the conditions and lives of these children in stark detail. Of the 20 children he photographed, some have died, others have disappeared and only one is known to have survived. His work is a photographic testament of children who have been banished from their homes and society to a life without hope. Cover pages photo credit: Michal Novotny Design: ISBN 978 92 806 4546 0 © The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 2010
BLAME AND BANISHMENT - page 3
BLAME AND BANISHMENT The underground HIV epidemic affecting children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
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Blame and Banishment: The underground HIV epidemic affecting children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Fyodor Mikhaylovitch Dostoevsky (1821–1881), Russian novelist, author of Crime and Punishment, Notes from the Underground, and many other masterpieces. His work often described the lives of those who were outcast from society. To live without hope is to cease to live. F. M. Dostoevsky This report is dedicated to children living with HIV in Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to all those trying to make a difference in children’s lives. Fragments of some of their stories are told in this report, but many more of their stories remain untold, hidden or silenced. Some of the children featured in the stories and photographs are no longer alive. This report is dedicated to their memory. UNICEF hopes that this report may help bring a ray of light into the lives of those children and families still with us. III
BLAME AND BANISHMENT - page 6
Blame and Banishment: The underground HIV epidemic affecting children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Contents Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... V Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... VII Abbreviations and Acronyms ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... VIII Children, AIDS and exclusion: An introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 1 Section I – Abandoned into state care ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Section II – The stories of most-at-risk adolescents are stories of broken dreams ............................. 15 Section III – Children of the streets: The end of childhood ....................................................................................................... 31 Section IV – Living with HIV: Society, systems and a daily search for hope .................................................. 37 Section V – Forces for change .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49 References .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 54 IV
BLAME AND BANISHMENT - page 7
Blame and Banishment: The underground HIV epidemic affecting children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Acknowledgements This document was prepared by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS). The authors of this report – Nina Ferencic, Ruslan Malyuta, Paul Nary, Jadranka Mimica in collaboration with Alayne Adams and Anne Winter – wish to thank the following for their support: John Budd for communication and editorial guidance, and Marie-Christine Belgharbi for logistical and administrative support. Thanks to UNICEF Regional Office colleagues, including Gordon Alexander and Séverine Jacomy Vité for their review and comments on the various chapters. Very special thanks to UNICEF Country Office representatives, deputy representatives and, in particular, the HIV/AIDS and communication focal points who contributed information, stories and images for this report. Their commitment and hard work in addressing the HIV epidemic in the region on a daily basis are highly appreciated. UNICEF colleagues in country offices in Albania, Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan were particularly helpful. Thanks to Joanna Busza from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Claire Thorne from the Institute of Child Health, University of London, for providing valuable data and references. Thanks to civil society representatives, including Sergei Kostin, Robert Gamble, Alexander Tsekhanovich, Neil Hunt and representatives from the Eurasian Harm Reduction Network and the East Europe & Central Asia Union of Organizations of People Living with HIV/AIDS, for sharing their experiences. Thanks to Jimmy Kolker and the UNICEF Headquarters HIV/AIDS and Campaign teams and other HQ colleagues for their reviews and comments; and to Maria Calivis for her continued support. Special thanks to Steven Allen, Regional Director CEE/CIS, and Kirsi Madi, Deputy Regional Director, for their trust and support in making this report happen. Every reasonable effort has been made to verify the accuracy of data and of all the information presented in this report. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the contributing authors and do not necessarily reflect the policies or the views of UNICEF. The electronic version of this report and a number of other related materials, including additional information on many of the personal interest stories and materials presented in this report, can be accessed and downloaded from the UNICEF CEE/CIS web site: www.unicef.org/ceecis. V
BLAME AND BANISHMENT - page 8
BLAME AND BANISHMENT - page 9
Blame and Banishment: The underground HIV epidemic affecting children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Foreword Eastern Europe and Central Asia continue to see rapid increases in HIV infections among men, women and children. Despite some notable successes in responding to the epidemic, it is unlikely that the Universal Access targets and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) related to HIV/AIDS will be achieved. Access to antiretroviral treatment is still among the lowest in the world, and stigma and discrimination that violate the basic rights and dignity of people living with and affected by HIV, including children, are hampering further progress in prevention, care and support. This report brings to life the experiences of children, families and young people living with HIV. It gives voice to their stories of despair, stigma and social exclusion, as well as to their courage and hope. It explores the systemic failures in responding to their needs and outlines some good practices. It also describes the contradictions that children and young people, particularly those who are most at risk of HIV, face on a daily basis: societies insist that they conform to social norms, yet exclude them and brand them as misfits; health and social protection systems do not serve their needs and diminish their chances of living normal lives, but blame them when they fail to cope. The report also features some compelling photographs of the realities of living on the edge. Policy reforms, programmatic shifts and a reallocation of resources to strengthen health and social protection systems are required if the further spread of the epidemic is to be halted. Reforms must aim to expand and grant equitable access to services for all, including those who are currently excluded and missed. Successes in HIV prevention, treatment and care can only be increased and sustained if they are underpinned by social environments that advance human and child rights, gender equality and social justice. Blame and Banishment is a call to address the remaining gaps in the response to HIV in the region. It is a call for protecting the rights and dignity of children and young people who are vulnerable, at risk and living with or affected by HIV. It is also a call to build an environment of equity, trust and care rather than blame and banishment. Steven Allen Regional Director UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS VII
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Blame and Banishment: The underground HIV epidemic affecting children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Abbreviations and Acronyms AIDS ART ARV CEE/CIS ECUO GDP HIV IDU MARA MARP MCH MDGs MSF MSM NGO P2P PLHA PMTCT STI UNAIDS UNICEF USAID WHO YFHS acquired immune deficiency syndrome antiretroviral therapy antiretroviral (ARV) drugs Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States East Europe & Central Asia Union of People Living with HIV/AIDS gross domestic product human immunodeficiency virus injecting drug user most-at-risk adolescent most-at-risk population maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals Médecins Sans Frontières men who have sex with men non-governmental organization parent to parent people living with HIV/AIDS prevention of mother-to-child transmission (of HIV) sexually transmitted infection Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS United Nations Children’s Fund United States Agency for International Development World Health Organization youth-friendly health services VIII
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