Hanging Garden cover

Hanging Garden cover free pdf ebook was written by on February 18, 2011 consist of 26 page(s). The pdf file is provided by www.irvbd.org and available on pdfpedia since March 26, 2012.

hanging garden a voice for people's perspective kazi zaved khalid pasha joy marina..and vegetables, mustered and oil seed. endowed with an abundance of..water logging agriculture became impossible in eight upazillas in khulna, jessore...

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Hanging Garden cover pdf




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Hanging Garden cover - page 1
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Hanging Garden cover - page 2
Hanging Garden A Voice for People's Perspective Kazi Zaved khalid Pasha Joy Marina Juthi International Food Security Network (IFSN) 01
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Editorial Consultant A.H.M Rezaul Haque Managing Editors Kazi Zaved khalid Pasha Joy Marina Juthi Photograph Suman Biswas Azizur Rahaman Sobi Computer compose Manoj Biswas Graphics Design Shekar Kumar Biswas ANCKUR 50, Sir Iqbal, Khulna 813860 Printed by Procharony Printing Press 44, Sir Iqbal, Khulna Overall management Initiative for Right View (IRV) 20/2, Miapara Main Road Khulna, Bangladesh Phone : 88- 041-2831532 E-mail : [email protected] Web : www.irvbd.org Date of Publication September 2010 Supported by International Food Security Network (IFSN) 02
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Preface The southwest coastal region of Bangladesh is an active part of Ganges Delta formed by fine clay soil (Flubic) carried in by the upstream flows which is very fertile and rich in biological diversity. The livelihood of the people of this region is highly dependent on the natural resources. Agriculture and fisheries are important economic sectors employing a large portion of the population. Major Agricultural crops include rice, betel and vegetables, mustered and oil seed. Endowed with an abundance of natural resources and high biological diversity, there was need for an appropriate development initiative for optimal utilization of its resources for improving the living standards of the people. Without giving due importance of long experience and indigenous knowledge of the community with the support of International Financial Institutions (IFIs) government had implemented projects such as Coastal Embankment Project (CEP) which terned watlands to dryland creating conflict between costal ecosystem and agro ecosystem. Solving the problem Govt. took Khulna Jessore Drainage Rehabilitation Project (KJDRP) with the support of Asian Devepment Bank (ADB). The project was also failed. Instead of reducing water logging IFIs funded projects created more destruction. More or less 106000 hectors of land wsa affected in 1990. Due to water logging agriculture became impossible in eight upazillas in Khulna, Jessore and Satkhira. Cultivation of Aman(a local verities of fine rice) has been abandoned in some areas due to water logging. Cultivation of Boro rice is left as the primary crop but is also slowly being reduced and the production of Robi (horticulture) is now at highly unsatisfactory levels. Hundreds of thousands of people became unemployed as a result of the water logging, especially the poor and marginal. Share coppers landless agricultural wage laborers petty trader and others became unemployed. They were constrained to change their normal occupation. Agriculture was reduced to a minimum and even homesteads vegetable gardening and cattle rearing became impossible. There was no dry space for homestead vegetable gardens or to rear poultry and ducks. The poor, who depended on such homegrown nutrition as fruits, vegetables, eggs and milk, increasingly became victims of malnourishment and food insecurity. Women and children were the worst sufferers. Impelled by these sufferings, the people of this region have launched numerous social movements demanding mitigation of the problems. Beside the movement the affected community invented a unique cultivation system in their areas which is popular as hanging garden. 03
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It can also be the most effective way of cultivation of crops in the wetlands and water logged areas that might no way disturb the ecology and ecosystem. The purpose of this publication is to bring to light the sufferings of the water logged community and their innovation (Hanging Garden) for enhancing food security and their movement against the development disaster done by International Financial Institutions (IFIs). For inspiration, suggeation and support I would like to thank Asgar Ali Sabri and Farhat Jahan of ActionAid. I acknowledge the cooperation, guidance and suggestion extended by A.H.M Rezaul Haq. Especial thanks to Agriculturist S. M. Ferdous for his valuable contribution to the publication, we also extend our thanks to Babur Ali Golder and late Belaet Hossain for their valuable cooperation. I take pleasure in extending my heartfelt thanks to Marina Pervin Juthi, for individual and institutional support. I also am giving thanks to Azizur Rahaman Sobi and Manoj Biswas for collecting information and data. Valuable information case study and shared experience of the hanging gardeners enriched the publication. We are also indebted to them. Last but not least my appreciation goes to International Food Security Network (IFSN) and ActionAid for providing support. With thanks Kazi Zaved Khalid Pasha Joy Coordinator Initiative for Right View (IRV) 04
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Background Since ancient times in Bangladesh human habitats, their mode of living and method of subsistence all have been built up on the basis of water resources. The civilization growing out of the process of riverine civilization pervades every sphere of our life, particularly art and culture, songs and literature. (So trend, tendency, development approaches or policies governing the livings have got no alternative but to be consistent and in harmony with rivers and associated wetland ecosystem). Various nations and states the worlds over are usually named after diverse historical events and with historical perspective in view. But the historical background of Bangladesh as a name comes after its geographical location. The region between the Bhagirothi and the Padma, the two main streams of the Ganges has been known as `Banga' for about last 3 thousand years. To many, `Bango' as a name originates from Sino-Bhutanees and Tebetan word `Bang', which means wetland. In distant past the Northeast region of Sunderbans was a vast expanse of forest and through deforestation of the same human habitats have grown there. According to Mughal historian Abul Fazal in ancient time the kings of the region used to build up 20 yards wide & 10 yards high `Al' (dykes) for human settlement. We think `Al' when suffixed with the word Banga does the word Bongal/Bangal originates, which would mean the inhabitants of Bango. On their first introduction with Bongal/Bangal, the inhabitants of the coastal areas, the foreign traders & merchants became familiar as such with the hinterland (Northern part) of this country. Thus originates Bangal after the name of southern Bango. During the second half of the twentieth century, development of the delta has been dominated by a strategy of controlling floods based on construction and operation of structural works on its river systems and water bodies. These consisted of a variety of engineering structures, such as embankments/dykes, polders, regulators and sluices, which were built to function in a coordinated manner as elements of integrated flood control and drainage (FCD) schemes. Installation of these structures clearly involved interventions in the hydrological regime of the delta. Despite variations, the FCD schemes were essentially aimed at excluding excess water from project areas during the monsoon floods. This had the effect of providing protection from floods, as well as converting normally flooded ('wetland') areas into flood-free 'dry lands' for the purposes of increased crop production. As a result, a massive flood control program was launched in 1964 under what was termed the 'Master Plan' [Adnan et. at, 1992: 36-39].9 This huge enterprise consisted of 58 FCD projects spread 05
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out over the delta, to be implemented over a period of 20 years. By the end of the 1980s, nearly 7,555 kilometres of embankments, several hundred polders, as well as 7,907 hydraulic structures had been constructed across much of the delta by the projects of the Master Plan [Khan, 1991: 11]. The people in Khulna, Jessore and Satkhira are the major victims of this human made calamity. People of the areas ceaselessly have been raising their voice against the interventions to get rid of it. They organized several movements against water logging and unplanned projects of IFIs. But their voices are still unheard. Now it has been beyond the capacity of the water logged people to survive. They are passing through an inhuman struggle to earn their bread in a dome where everything related to livelihoods is out of function. People are trying their best to survive their lives by the way of innovation. Hanging garden is one of those innovations that the community and local organizations have innovated to cultivate some vegetables in an effective way. Besides, this method can provide more productions by less expenditure than the traditional agricultural system. 06
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South-west coastal region There are approximately 711 km of coastal area in Bangladesh. The area is also divided according to location into East, West and Central Coastal area. According to these classifications, 7 Upazilla of khulna, Bagerhat and Satkhira districts are considered to be exposed coastal zones while the remaining 23 Upazillas of these 3 districts are considered to be interior coastal zone. Although the Upazillas of Jessore, Narail and Gopalgonj are not considered as exposed coastal areas, 17 Upazillaa of these 3 districts are considered to be within the interior coastal zone. So, the Southwest coastal region can be said to typify the characteristics of the coastal Upazillas of Khulna, Bagerhat, Shatkhira, Jessore, Narail and Gopalgonj districts. Generally, according to the river basin, the area from the Tetulia River in East to the international border between India and Bangladesh, located at the Hariabhanga River in West, (ESCAP/UN,1987) is known as the Southwest coastal region of Bangladesh (WP005, PDO-ICZMP, Delineation of the Coastal Zone, Dhaka, December, 2003). The entire Southwest region of Bangladesh is part of the great Ganges delta which extends from the Bhagirathi-Hooghly eastwards to the Meghna estuary through which the Ganges discharges its waters into the Bay of Bengal. The Bangladesh portion of this delta lies between the Meghna estuary and the Ichamati-Kalindi River on the border with India. The southern part of the region has a brackish water regime, while the northern portion has fresh water. The region is comprised mostly of low-lying land, barely one metre above mean sea level. Most of the land used to be Tidal Flood Plain. The region is criss-crossed by numerous rivers. But during the last 3-4 centuries, the big rivers lost their connection with the Ganges and became mere drainage channels for surplus rainwater. The Gorai remained as the main distributaries of the Ganges before the Ganges joined with the Brahmaputra and Meghna. The tides used to govern the environment, ecology and economy of the region. 07
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Natural setting and Human Intervention in South-west coastal region in the 19 th century In the 19th century, the then government of the British East India Company received complaints about the heavy current in the river Mathabhanga. Engineers deputed to address the issue sank a number of earth-laden boats in the Mathabhanga, just below its intake point from the Ganges. This resulted in the reduction of flow in the Mathabhanga, and within a very short time, the intake point silted up and Mathabhanga lost its connection with the Ganges. Sometime afterwards, the Jalangi also lost its connection with the Ganges. As the Jalangi joins with a branch of the Mathabhanga to form the Bhairab, the latter river also lost its source of supply of Ganges water, and became a mere drainage channel for rain water. This massive reduction in the flow of fresh water from the Ganges led to increased incursion of tides into the coastal rivers through the numerous creeks and estuaries that pass through the Sundarbans, and resulted in increased salinity in the districts of 24 Parganas, Khulna and parts of Jessore. A vast tract of low lying tidal flood plain in the coastal area of Bangladesh is flooded twice in a day. For many years, these lands used to be protected by dwarf embankment under the initiative of local Zamindars. Paddy cultivation in rotation with fish production was the main activities of the people of the area. Ecology and socio-economic live have been regulated by the rivers and wetlands. the local people under the leadership of local "Zamindars"/landlords and "Matabbars" used to construct small earthen dikes of eight-month duration and wooden sluice boxes around different "Beels" or "Ghers" on cooperative basis-that was very much coherent with the local environment with a little hindrance to natural flow of biodiversity and silt. A professional community was developed for the purpose, locally known as Shana (means, those who organized people maintaining embankment). The cost of those constructions used to be realized in "Hari" system. That means after harvest 2% to 5% of the paddy had to be given to the local management committee (equally by landowner and crop sharer).They also build large numbers of fresh water ponds as watershed for drinking and domestic use for settled populations. Farmers used to cultivate these tidal flood plains during the monsoon rains, by protecting the lands from tidal incursion by building earthen dikes and temporary sluices. 08
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After the harvest at the end of the monsoon, they demolished the dikes and sluices, and the tides used to be given free play to replenish the land with silt. The silt not only compensated for the subsidence, but also revived the fertility of the soil because of the high content of decomposed organic matter in the silt. The poor and marginal farmers and landless laborers then took up fishing as a supplementary occupation during the "off-season" for agriculture. With ample supply of rice and fish, there was never any deficit of food in the region, and thus no cause for any social conflict. Consequently, agriculture, coastal-biodiversity, navigability of rivers and land build up process were quite unaffected but often-tidal surge disrupted rice production, and human settlement exist side by side thereby coastal ecosystem and agro-ecosystem exist site by side without harming each other. The fertility of this region has always attracted people from other parts of the country. But the thoughtless and improper intervention, both nationally and internationally, from within and without on the natural flow of water, has tilted the total ecological balance. This has resulted in the phenomenon of massive water logging in one part of the country and desertification process on the other areas of the country causing immense suffering for the people. People cannot produce paddy, cattle cannot graze over the lands, trees cannot grow well and fishes cannot survive. This is only because of water logging that has been induced over the decades by the government being prescribed by IFIs. They built up embankments in the name of flood management and crops protection from disasters. Alongside they tried to introduce different varieties of agricultural products from outsides in the name of creating green revolution. In the long run the embankments retarded the natural flow of tide and siltation and created water logging in the coastal areas. 09
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